I’ve taught courses on the politics and law of international trade (graduate) and understanding the role of economists / economics in public policy (undergraduate).

Syllabi and teaching reviews available upon request.

Below is an illustrative outline of two courses I’ve led or co-led.


Thinking Economically (co-taught with Dr. Heather Boushey)
Johns Hopkins University


Economics has become the most influential social science discipline in policymaking. This means that economists and economic arguments permeate public policy discourse. This course will both introduce the fundamental concepts of economic theory and its practical application to policy making in the United States. It is not designed to make the student an economist; it is designed to teach the student how to think like an economist. This entails understanding economic terms and definitions, the models and tools used by economists, when and how the government might intervene in the market, and what critiques are leveled against the traditional economic paradigm.

Required Text

Ha-Joon Chang, Economics: The User’s Guide (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2015).

Week 1 (Sept. 8): What is economics? Who are economists? (Boushey & Tucker)
In this class, we will review competing definitions of economics and the history of the profession in the U.S., and its connection to government in comparison to other disciplines. What factors explain variation in research programs within the profession and cross-nationally?
– Chang, Chapters 1 and 4.
– Daniel W. Drezner, The Ideas Industry: How Pessimists, Partisans, and Plutocrats Are Transforming the Marketplace of Ideas., 1 edition (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2017). Chapter 4
– Additional reading: Marion Fourcade, Economists and Societies: Discipline and Profession in the United States, Britain, and France, 1890s to 1990s (Princeton University Press, 2009).

Week 2 (Sept. 15): Microeconomics: Rationality, Supply, & Demand (Boushey & Tucker)
How do economists conceive of the individual? We will review rational choice and behavioral approaches. Also, moving one level up from the individual, we will look at markets. What are supply and demand? How do they give us a market price and why would it change?
– Chang, Chapter 5.
– Paola Tubaro, “History of Microeconomics,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition, ed. J.D. Wright (Elsevier, 2015), 331–37, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.03060-9.
– Gary Becker, The Economic Approach to Human Behavior, University of Chicago Press, 1976, Introduction.
– R. Preston McAfee, Introduction to Economic Analysis (Florida: Orange Grove Texts Plus, 2009). Chapters 2-3, Available at: http://www.muhlenberg.edu/media/contentassets/pdf/economicanalysis/IEA.pdf
– Additional reading: Christine Jolls, Cass R. Sunstein, and Richard Thaler, “A Behavioral Approach to Law and Economics,” Stanford Law Review 50, no. 5 (May 1, 1998): 1471–1550, https://doi.org/10.2307/1229304.

Week 3 (Sept. 22): Imperfect Competition: Rent Generation and Allocation (Tucker)
How do markets work when there is little or no competition among sellers?
– Brink Lindsey, “Low Hanging Fruit Guarded by Dragons,” CATO Institute, 2015.
– Nell Abernathy, Mike Konczal, and Kathryn Milani, “Untamed: How to Check Corporate, Financial, and Monopoly Power” (New York: Roosevelt Institute, June 6, 2016), http://rooseveltinstitute.org/untamed-how-check-corporate-financial-and-monopoly-power/. Section I, Chapter 1
– Additional Reading: Mushtaq H. Khan and Kwame Sundaram Jomo, Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). Chapter 1.
– Additional reading: Lina Khan, “Amazon’s Antitrust Paradox,” Yale Law Journal 126 (2017): 709–805.
– Additional reading: George Stigler “The Economic Theory of Regulation,” Bell Journal of Economics, 1971.

Week 4 (Sept. 29): Labor Markets I: Human Capital, Social Capital, Signaling, and Discrimination (Boushey)
How do labor markets work? What is the role of human capital in determining the wage a person is paid?
– Gary Becker, “Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis” Journal of Political Economy, 1962 Vol 20, Issue 5, Part 2: 9-49
– Natalia A. Kolesnikova, “The Return to Education Isn’t Calculated Easily”
– Anna Bernasek, “What’s the Return on Education?” New York Times (12-11-05)
– David Grusky, “What to Do About Inequality?” Boston Review, March 2012.
– Andrew Weiss, “Human Capital vs. Signaling Explanations of Wages,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 9, # 4 Fall 1995, pp 133-154 .
– Michele Budig, “The Fatherhood Bonus and The Motherhood Penalty: Parenthood and the Gender Gap in Pay,” Third Way, September 2, 2014
– Additional reading: Sean Reardon, “The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations,” in Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children’s Life Chances (Russell Sage Foundation, 2011).

Week 5 (Oct. 6): Labor Markets II – Institutions, Wage Setting, and the Minimum Wage (Boushey)
Does the labor market operate like the simple supply and demand framework implies? What role do institutions play in determining employment and earnings?
– Chang, Chapter 10.
– John Schmitt, “Why Does the Minimum Wage Have No Discernible Effect on Employment?”
– David Neumark, “The Effects of Minimum Wages on Employment,” Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Newsletter, December 21, 2015.
– Additional reading: Matthew Walters and Lawrence Mishel, “How Unions Benefit all Workers,” Economic Policy Institute, August, 2003.

Week 6 (Oct. 13): Basics of Macroeconomics (Boushey & Tucker)
Up until now, we’ve covered individuals, markets, and states – mostly from a microeconomic perspective. In this class, we’ll move on to macroeconomics: the study of the economy as a whole. What components make up the economy, and how do they relate to one another?
– Chang, Chapter 6.
– Kevin D. Hoover, “Macroeconomics, History of From 1933 to Present,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), ed. James D. Wright (Oxford: Elsevier, 2015), 400–405, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.71066-X.
– Additional reading: Carol S. Carson, “The History of the United States National Income and Product Accounts: The Development of an Analytical Tool,” Review of Income and Wealth 21, no. 2 (1975): 153–181.
– Additional reading: Joseph Stiglitz, Amartya K. Sen, and Jean-Paul Fitoussi, “The Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress Revisited: Reflections and Overview,” 2009, https://hal-sciencespo.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01069384/.
– Additional reading: Steven Greenlaw and Timothy Taylor, Principles of Macroeconomics, chapters 6, 12, and 13
– Additional reading: Frederic S. Mishkin, Economics of Money, Banking, and Financial Markets, 7th edition (Boston: Addison Wesley, 2003). Chapter 22-24
– Additional reading: Eshe Nelson and Dan Kopf, “Economic Models Are Broken, and Economists Have Wildly Different Ideas about How to Fix Them,” Quartz (blog), September 14, 2017, https://qz.com/1077549/economic-models-are-broken-and-economists-like-joseph-stiglitz-and-researchers-at-the-bank-of-england-have-wildly-different-ideas-about-how-to-fix-them/.
– Additional reading: Krugman, Paul. “How Did Economists Get It So Wrong?” The New York Times, September 2, 2009, sec. Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/06/magazine/06Economic-t.html.

Week 7 (Oct. 20): Externalities, Social Costs, and Role of the State (Tucker)
In week 3, we looked at one consequence of government regulation: monopolization. This week, we will look at why policymakers nonetheless justify interventions in markets – as well as consider those aspects of social life that are more or less amenable to how economists approach this problem.
– Chang, Chapter 11.
– Ronald H. Coase, “The Problem of Social Cost,” Journal of Law and Economics 3 (1960): 1–69.
– Additional reading: William M. Landes and Richard A. Posner, “Adjudication as a Private Good,” Journal of Legal Studies 8, no. 2 (March 1, 1979): 235–84.
– Additional reading: Paul Pierson, Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004). Chapter 1.
– Additional reading: Jeffry A. Frieden, “The Dynamics of International Monetary Systems: International and Domestic Factors in the Rise, Reign, and Demise of the Classical Gold Standard,” The Gold Standard in Theory and History, 1997, 207–229.

Week 8 (Oct. 27): The Causes of Growth and Development (Tucker)
What are the factors that promote economic growth over the long run? What institutional structures help and hinder growth?
– Chang, Chapters 2, 3, and 7.
– Additional reading: Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty (New York: Crown Publishing Group, 2012). Chapter 2.
– Additional reading: Douglass C. North, “A Framework for Analyzing the State in Economic History,” Explorations in Economic History 16, no. 3 (July 1, 1979): 249–59.
– Additional reading: Gary P. Pisano and Willy C. Shih, “Does America Really Need Manufacturing?,” Harvard Business Review 90, no. 3 (March 2012): 94–102.
– Additional reading: Dieter Plehwe, “The Origins of the Neoliberal Economic Development Discourse,” in The Road from Mont Pelerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective, ed. Philip Mirowski and Dieter Plehwe (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015).

Week 9 (Nov. 3): Trade: Micro, Macro, and Politics (Tucker)
What is the economic rationale for greater trade? How is trade governed in the 21st century? What are the major economic controversies in the present context?
– Chang, chapter 12
– Ana Swanson, “A Simple Explanation of Why Trump Is Wrong on Trade, According to a Top Expert,” Washington Post, February 17, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2017/02/17/a-simple-explanation-of-why-trump-is-wrong-on-trade-according-to-a-top-expert/?utm_term=.42467add419e. [Interview with David Autor]
– Dani Rodrik, “The Trade Numbers Game,” Project Syndicate, February 10, 2016, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/tpp-debate-economic-benefits-by-dani-rodrik-2016-02.
– Additional reading: Todd Tucker, “The Sustainable Equitable Trade Doctrine” (New York: Roosevelt Institute, March 16, 2017), http://rooseveltinstitute.org/trade-set-doctrine/.
– Additional reading: Steven Suranovic, the Ricardian Model of Comparative Advantage, Chapter 40. Available at: http://internationalecon.com/Trade/Tch40/Tch40.php

Week 10 (Nov. 10): Monetary and Financial Policy (Tucker)
This class will introduce the basics of money and finance in an open economy context. What are the functions of banks, stock markets, and international financial regulatory bodies?
– Chang, Chapter 8.
– Abernathy, Konczal, and Milani, “Untamed.” Section II, Chapters 4-6.
– Additional reading: Atossa Araxia Abrahamian, “The Rock-Star Appeal of Modern Monetary Theory,” The Nation, May 8, 2017, https://www.thenation.com/article/the-rock-star-appeal-of-modern-monetary-theory/.
– Additional reading: Mishkin, Economics of Money, Banking, and Financial Markets. Chapters 1-3.
– Additional reading: Maurice Obstfeld and Alan M. Taylor, “The Great Depression as a Watershed: International Capital Mobility over the Long Run,” Working Paper (National Bureau of Economic Research, March 1997), https://doi.org/10.3386/w5960. Available at: http://www.nber.org/papers/w5960

Week 11 (Nov. 17): Debt Crises and Long-Term Unemployment (Boushey)
Does high debt condemn us to a prolonged period of high unemployment? If so, what are the costs?
– Carment Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff, “Growth in a Time of Debt”
– Thomas Herndon, Michael Ash, and Robert Pollin, “Does High Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogoff”
– Additional reading: Gary Burtless, “ Long Term Unemployment: Anatomy of the Scourge”

Week 12 (Dec. 1): Inequality in a Market Economy (Boushey)
Is inequality an inevitable outcome in a market economy? Is it a desirable outcome?
– Chang, Chapter 9.
– Thomas Piketty, Emmanuel Saez, and Gabriel Zucman, “Economic growth in the United States: A tale of two countries,” Washington Center for Equitable Growth, December 6, 2016. http://equitablegrowth.org/research-analysis/economic-growth-in-the-united-states-a-tale-of-two-countries/
– Claudia Goldin and Larry Katz, “The Race Between Education and Inequality: The Evolution of U.S. Educational Wage Differentials, 1895-2005.”
– Gregory Mankiw, “Defending the One Percent” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2013
– Additional readings: Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez, “Income Inequality in the United States, 1913–1998,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 118, no. 1 (2003): 1–41.

Week 13 (Dec. 8): Climate Change and Environmental Economics (Tucker)
How do economists approach the problem of climate change and environmental damage?
– Jerry Taylor, “The Conservative Case for a Carbon Tax” (Washington, DC: Niskanen Center, March 23, 2015), https://niskanencenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/The-Conservative-Case-for-a-Carbon-Tax1.pdf.
– Robert Pollin et al., “Green Growth: A U.S. Program for Controlling Climate Change and Expanding Job Opportunities” (Amherst: University of Massachusetts-Amherst, September 2014), http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/Green_Growth_2014/GreenGrowthReport-PERI-Sept2014.pdf. Note: Read Summary and Chapter 1, scan the rest if desired as additional reading. (Emma presenting a chapter(s) of her choice)
– Robert O. Keohane and David G. Victor, “Cooperation and Discord in Global Climate Policy,” Nature Climate Change 6, no. 6 (2016): 570–575.


Contemporary Trade Policy Issues
University of New Hampshire

The goal of this course is to develop a familiarity with several major aspects of contemporary debates around international trade policy. Rather than delving into methodological and measurement debates that would be common in a graduate economics course on trade, this study focuses instead on the legal and political issues with which a social or think-tank entrepreneur dealing with real-world trading and foreign policy should be acquainted.

The five reading units include:
1. What have been the major historical developments in U.S. post-war trade strategy? What are the primary functions of institutions the U.S. helped create?
2. How has India engaged in this architecture and developed its own trade strategy?
3. What have been the primary approaches decisionmakers at the GATT and WTO have used to regulate technical standards in products?
4. Based on the long-running GATT/WTO disputes on tuna, what policy space does the U.S. have to block imports of seafood from its trading partners? What defensive and offensive steps could a social entrepreneur take to secure U.S. market access in the face of possible regulatory objections?
5. How can trade policy be an opportunity or challenge for addressing climate change? How can a social entrepreneur make the affirmative case that their trading plans will help address global warming?


General Trade Architecture / U.S. Policy
1. Richard Toye, “Developing Multilateralism: The Havana Charter and the Fight for the International Trade Organization, 1947–1948,” The International History Review 25, no. 2 (2003): 282–305.
2. Gabrielle Marceau, ed., A History of Law and Lawyers in the GATT/WTO: The Development of the Rule of Law in the Multilateral Trading System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
3. I. M. Destler, American Trade Politics, Fourth Edition (Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2005).
4. Todd Tucker and Lori Wallach, The Rise and Fall of Fast Track Trade Authority (Washington, DC: Public Citizen, 2009).
5. Todd Tucker, “The Sustainable Equitable Trade Doctrine” (New York: Roosevelt Institute, March 16, 2017), http://rooseveltinstitute.org/trade-set-doctrine/.
6. William J. Drake and Kalypso Nicolaidis, “Ideas, Interests, and Institutionalization: ‘Trade in Services’ and the Uruguay Round,” International Organization 46, no. 1 (January 1, 1992): 37–100, doi:10.2307/2706952.
7. Joost Pauwelyn, Optimal Protection of International Law: Navigating between European Absolutism and American Voluntarism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
8. Manfred Elsig, “Legalization in Context: The Design of the WTO’s Dispute Settlement System,” The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 19, no. 2 (May 1, 2017): 304–19, doi:10.1177/1369148117690890.
9. Simon J. Evenett and Michael Meier, “An Interim Assessment of the US Trade Policy of ‘Competitive Liberalization,’” The World Economy 31, no. 1 (2008): 31–66.
10. Thomas Cottier and Manfred Elsig, eds., Governing the World Trade Organization: Past, Present and Beyond Doha (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
11. Kent Jones, Reconstructing the World Trade Organization for the 21st Century: An Institutional Approach (Oxford University Press, 2015).

India-U.S. Trade Relations and Market Access for Less Developed Countries
1. Joost Pauwelyn, “The End of Differential Treatment for Developing Countries? Lessons from the Trade and Climate Change Regimes,” Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law 22, no. 1 (April 1, 2013): 29–41, doi:10.1111/reel.12017.
2. Manfred Elsig and Philipp Stucki, “Low-Income Developing Countries and WTO Litigation: Why Wake up the Sleeping Dog?,” Review of International Political Economy 19, no. 2 (May 1, 2012): 292–316, doi:10.1080/09692290.2010.528313.
3. Carina van de Wetering, Changing US Foreign Policy toward India: US-India Relations since the Cold War, 1st ed. 2016 edition (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016).
4. Aaditya Mattoo and Robert Mitchell Stern, India and the WTO (World Bank Publications, 2003).
5. Aaditya Mattoo and Arvind Subramanian, “India and Bretton Woods II,” Economic and Political Weekly 43, no. 45 (2008): 62–70, doi:10.2307/40278753.
6. Kasturi Das, “Coping with SPS Challenges in India: WTO and Beyond,” Journal of International Economic Law 11, no. 4 (2008): 971–1019.
7. Amy A. Quark, “Ratcheting up Protective Regulations in the Shadow of the WTO: NGO Strategy and Food Safety Standard-Setting in India,” Review of International Political Economy 23, no. 5 (September 2, 2016): 872–98, doi:10.1080/09692290.2016.1242509.
8. Abhijit Das and James J. Nedumpara, eds., WTO Dispute Settlement at Twenty – Insiders’ Reflections on India’s Participation (Singapore: Springer, 2016), http://www.springer.com/us/book/9789811005985.
9. J. P. Singh and Surupa Gupta, “Agriculture and Its Discontents: Coalitional Politics at the WTO with Special Reference to India’s Food Security Interests,” International Negotiation 21, no. 2 (June 2, 2016): 295–326, doi:10.1163/15718069-12341334.
10. Parthapratim Pal, “Deal Breaker or the Protector of Interests of Developing Countries? India’s Negotiating Stance in WTO,” in International Trade and International Finance (Springer, New Delhi, 2016), 159–77, doi:10.1007/978-81-322-2797-7_8.
11. Caf Dowlah, “Cross-Border Labor Mobility: A Critical Assessment of WTO’s GATS Mode 4 Vis-à-Vis Regional Trade Agreements,” Journal of International Trade Law and Policy 13, no. 1 (March 11, 2014): 2–18, doi:10.1108/JITLP-12-2012-0020.
12. Marion Panizzon, “US—India Visa Fee Controversy before the WTO: A Migration-Mobility Nexus for the WTO?,” NCCR, October 27, 2016, http://blog.nccr-onthemove.ch/us-india-visa-fee-controversy-before-the-wto-a-migration-mobility-nexus-for-the-wto/.

Regulatory Standards
1. Petros C. Mavroidis, “Driftin’ Too Far from Shore – Why the Test for Compliance with the TBT Agreement Developed by the WTO Appellate Body Is Wrong, and What Should the AB Have Done Instead,” World Trade Review 12, no. 03 (July 2013): 509–531, doi:10.1017/S1474745613000013.
2. Todd Tucker, “The WTO Ruling on the United States’ Flavoured Cigarettes Ban,” in The Global Tobacco Epidemic and the Law, ed. Tania S. Voon and Andrew D. Mitchell (London: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014), 87–104.
3. Maggie Xiaoyang Chen and Aaditya Mattoo, “Regionalism in Standards: Good or Bad for Trade?,” The Canadian Journal of Economics / Revue Canadienne d’Economique 41, no. 3 (2008): 838–63, doi:10.2307/25478306.
4. Elizabeth Sheargold and Andrew D. Mitchell, “The TPP and Good Regulatory Practices: An Opportunity for Regulatory Coherence to Promote Regulatory Autonomy?,” World Trade Review 15, no. 4 (October 2016): 587–612, doi:10.1017/S1474745616000045.
5. Robert E. Hudec, “GATT/WTO Constraints on National Regulation: Requiem for an” Aim and Effects” Test,” International Lawyer 32, no. 3 (1998): 619–649.
6. Robert Howse and Donald Regan, “The Product/Process Distinction-an Illusory Basis for Disciplining’unilateralism’in Trade Policy,” European Journal of International Law 11, no. 2 (2000): 249–289.

Case Study: Lessons from Tuna Wars
1. Andras Szepesi, Rudolf Ramsauer, and Elbio Rosselli, U.S. – Restrictions on Imports of Tuna (Report of the Panel), No. DS21/R-39S/155 (GATT September 3, 1991).
2. Mario Matus, Franz Perrez, and Elizabeth Chelliah, United States – Measures Concerning the Importation, Marketing and Distribution of Tuna and Tuna Products (Report of the Panel), No. WT/DS381/R (WTO 2011).
3. Yuejiao Zhang, Ujal Singh Bhatia, and Thomas R. Graham, United States – Measures Concerning the Importation, Marketing and Distribution of Tuna and Tuna Products (Report of the Appellate Body), No. WT/DS381/AB/R (WTO 2012).
4. Mario Matus, Elizabeth Chelliah, and Franz Perrez, United States – Measures Concerning The Importation, Marketing And Sale Of Tuna And Tuna Products (Recourse To Article 21.5 Of The DSU By Mexico, Report Of The Panel), No. WT/DS381/RW (January 30, 2015).
5. Shree Baboo Chekitan Servansing, Ujal Singh Bhatia, and Yuejiao Zhang, United States – Measures Concerning the Importation, Marketing and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products (“Tuna II”) (Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by Mexico, Report of the Appellate Body), No. WT/DS381/AB/RW (WTO November 20, 2015).
6. Stefán Haukur Jóhannesson, Elizabeth Chelliah, and Franz Perrez, United States – Measures Concerning The Importation, Marketing And Sale Of Tuna And Tuna Products (Recourse to article 22.6 of the DSU by the United States, Decision by the Arbitrator), No. WT/DS381/ARB (April 25, 2017).

Case Study: Trade-Climate Connections
1. Robert O. Keohane and David G. Victor, “The Regime Complex for Climate Change,” Perspectives on Politics 9, no. 01 (March 2011): 7–23, doi:10.1017/S1537592710004068.
2. Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Steve Charnovitz, and Jisun Kim, Global Warming and the World Trading System (Peterson Institute, 2009).
3. Rachel Brewster, “Stepping Stone or Stumbling Block: Incrementalism and National Climate Change Legislation,” Yale Law & Policy Review 28, no. 2 (2010): 245–312, doi:10.2307/27871296.
4. Todd Tucker, “Trade Pacts Threaten Effective Use of Clean Air Act to Regulate Greenhouse Gases” (Washington, DC: Public Citizen, July 20, 2012), http://www.citizen.org/documents/clean-air-act-and-trade-paper-final.pdf.
5. Jakob Skovgaard, “The Devil Lies in the Definition: Competing Approaches to Fossil Fuel Subsidies at the IMF and the OECD,” International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 17, no. 3 (June 1, 2017): 341–53, doi:10.1007/s10784-017-9355-z.
6. David Walker, Pornchai Danvivathana, and Marco Tulio Molina Tejeda, India – Certain Measures relating to Solar Cells and Solar Modules (Report of the Panel), No. WT/DS456/R (WTO February 24, 2016).
7. Peter Van den Bossche, Seung Wha Chang, and Thomas R. Graham, India — Certain Measures Relating to Solar Cells and Solar Modules (Report of the Appellate Body), No. WT/DS456/AB/R (WTO September 16, 2016).
8. D. Ravi Kanth, “India Complains against US at WTO over Subsidies,” LiveMint, February 7, 2017, http://www.livemint.com/Politics/pJMmeKKNEykdzXMzi2OgAO/India-complains-against-US-at-WTO-over-subsidies.html.